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AGGLUTINATION Adherence together of small bodies in a fluid. Thus, blood corpuscles agglutinate into heaps (rouleaux) when added to the serum of a person belonging to an incompatible blood-group. Bacteria agglutinate into clumps and die when exposed to the presence of antibodies in the blood. This is important in regard to diagnosis of certain diseases due to bacteria. In typhoid fever, for example, the blood of an animal is immunized against typhoid bacilli by repeated injections of these. The blood-serum of the animal, known now as anti-typhoid serum, is issued to labora­tories for use when bacilli are found in the excretions of a patient who is possibly suffering from typhoid fever. The bacilli are exposed to the action of a drop of the serum; if the serum shows the power of agglutinating these bacte­ria, this forms evidence that the bacteria in question are typhoid bacilli. The reaction may also be carried out in the contrary manner: that is to say, the serum from the blood of a patient, who may be suffering from typhoid fever, but in whom the diagnosis is still doubtful, is added to a drop of fluid containing typhoid bacilli; if these are agglutinated into clumps by the patient's serum, the patient is then known to be suffering from typhoid fever; if they do not agglutinate, his symptoms are due to some other condition. This reaction for typhoid fever is known as the Widal reaction. Compa­rable agglutination reactions, using an appro­priate serum, are used in the diagnosis of a number of diseases, including glandular fever (when it is known as the Paul-Bunnell reac­tion), typhus fever (when it is known as the Weil-Felix reaction), undulant fever, and Weil's disease.

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